Some techniques for controlling pacing are universal to writing: sentence length, content, etc. (See 206 Pacing for more information about pacing in general.) But dialogue also has two unique technique for managing its pacing: manner of speech, and collaborative vs conflicting dialogue.
Character interaction is all about relationships, and dialogue is no exception. Every conversation centers around one or more important topics, and when discussing a topic it’s important to consider the following questions:
Clarity is an essential component of any good story. In dialogue, clarity means making sure audiences know who is speaking. The most common method is to identify the speaker by name, typically by using a tag such as “(name) said”. But it’s also important to make sure a character’s voice is consistent.
Medium to High Complexity
Medium to High Importance
Debates are a little more intense, a little more conflict driven. Where a focused conversation has at least one invested character, debates have at least two, each with their own position. Debates are, in many ways, a median between focused discussion and argument. A focused discussion may transition into debate on the way to becoming an argument, just as an argument may downgrade to a debate or even a focused discussion.
Dialogue, along with prose and description, represent the 3 aspects of scene writing. Characters are either observing, taking action, or talking (sometimes to themselves). Among the 3, dialogue is unique in that it grants every character a voice of their own.